New York City ‘Deficiency...’ Markings without the Associated Letters, etc.

By Anthony Wawrukiewicz, Thomas Breske, & Scott Steward
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Figure 16. (1880, as (Tom Breske Collection))


The hs in Figure 16 again shows the earliest known (to the authors) NYC ‘Deficiency...’ hs. This was on a April 1880 letter misdirected from Albany, N.Y. to NYC. There it was redirected to Syracuse, N.Y. with the hs illustrated. It was used before the official announcement of the rules and regulations announcing it, and only for these pre-announcement items the word “DIRECTION’ was used in these hs.


Figure 17. (1889, as (Scott Steward Collection))



In Figure 17 is a hs that was on an 1889 misdirected letter from Patterson, N.J. to NYC. There it was redirected to Rustic, N.J. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 18. (1898, as (Scott Steward Collection))


In Figure 18 is an 1898 NYC hs from a misdirected post card from Germany to NYC. There it was redirected to Moundsville, W.Va. with the NYC hs illustrated. The directory assistance was necessary because the address was done in faint pencil. NYC presumably acted as an exchange city.


Figure 19. (1901, as (Tom Breske Collection))



In Figure 19 is a hs from a 1901 misdirected (no state named) post card from Italy. It apparently went to NYC as an exchange city where the state, Mass., was determined as there it was redirected to Turners Falls, Mass. with the NYC hs illustrated.


Figure 20. (1902, as (Scott Steward Collection))



In Figure 20 is a hs from a 1902 misdirected Mariana, Fla. to NYC domestic letter. In NYC it was redirected to Brooklyn, N.Y. with the NYC hs illustrated.


Figure 21. (1904, as (Scott Steward Collection))


In Figure 21 is a NYC hs from a 1904 misdirected (incomplete state named) post card from Germany to Locksport. It apparently went to NYC as an exchange city where the state, N.Y., was determined and thus it was there redirected to Locksport, N.Y.


Figure 22. (1905-7, as (Tom Breske Collection))



In Figure 22 is a NYC hs from a 1905-7 misdirected post card from Camden, N.J. to NYC domestic letter. In NYC it was redirected to Brooklyn, N.Y. with the NYC hs illustrated.


Figure 23. (1907-13, as (Tom Breske Collection))



In Figure 23 is a NYC hs from a 1907-13 misdirected domestic letter. In NYC it was redirected with the NYC hs illustrated.


Figure 24. (1909, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 24 is a NYC hs from a 1909 misdirected domestic post card from Manchester, N.H. to NYC. In NYC it was redirected within NYC with the hs illustrated.


Figure 25. (1914, as (Tom Breske Collection))



In Figure 25 is a NYC hs from a 1914 misdirected post card from Germany to NYC. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Philadelphia, Penn. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 26. (1915, as (Scott Steward Collection))


In Figure 26 is a NYC hs from a 1915 misdirected letter from Italy. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Lehighton, Penn. with the hs illustrated. Once there it was forwarded to Bloomsburg, Penn., then Hutchinson, Kansas, where it was finally delivered.


Figure 27. (1918-23, (Tony Wawrukiewicz Collection))



In Figure 27 is a NYC hs from a 1918-23 misdirected letter from Germany to Long Island, N.Y. In NYC it was redirected to Hempstead, N.Y. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 28 (1919, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 28 is a NYC hs from a 1919 domestic military- related misdirected letter In NYC?? it was redirected with the hs illustrated.


Figure 29. (1921-8, as, (Tom Breske Collection))



In Figure 29 is a NYC hs from a 1921-8 misdirected international letter. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Martins Creek, Penn. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 30. (1928, as (Scott Steward Collection))



In Figure 30 is a NYC hs from a 1928 domestic misdirected letter from Kittanning, Penn. In NYC it was redirected within NYC with the hs illustrated.


Figure 31. (1934, (Tony Wawrukiewicz Collection))



In Figure 31 is a NYC hs from a 1934 misdirected letter from The Netherlands. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Moylan, Penn. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 32. (1937, as (Tom Breske Collection))

In Figure 32 is a NYC hs from a domestic 1934 misdirected post card from Slateport, Penn. to Brooklyn. In Brooklyn, post card redirected In NYC it was redirected to Ozone park, Long Isl. with the hs illustrated.


Figure 33. (1937-43, (Tony Wawrukiewicz Collection))



In Figure 33 is a NYC hs from a 1937-43 misdirected letter from Hungry. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Cudahy, Wis. with the hs shown.


Figure 34. (1944-50, (Tony Wawrukiewicz Collection))



In Figure 34 is a NYC hs from a 1944-50 misdirected (no state listed) letter from Argentina. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Winnetka, Ill. with the hs shown.


Figure 35. (1947-54, (Tony Wawrukiewicz Collection))



In Figure 35 is a NYC hs from a 1947-54 misdirected (no state listed) letter from Nigeria. NYC apparently acted as an exchange city. In NYC it was redirected to Winnetka, Ill. with the hs shown.


New York City ‘Deficiency...’ - Related Markings without the Associated Letters, etc.

There were other auxiliary markings related to the use of directories that are now presented chronologically. The first group below are markings that evaluated addresses where the addressee was not in the directory.

Figure 36. (1904, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 36 is a 1904 NYC hs from a domestic 1904 misdirected item. In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY.’ If a letter with a return address, presumably then undeliverable and returned to writer.


Figure 37. (1906, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 37 is a 1906 NYC hs from a domestic Wilkes- barre, Penn. to NYC misdirected post card with no return address (no CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ (undeliverable). As no CC, when undeliverable could not be returned.


Figure 38. (1908, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 38 is a 1908 NYC hs from a domestic Longbranch, N.J. to NYC misdirected post card with no return address (no CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ (undeliverable). As no CC, when undeliverable could not be returned.


Figure 39. (1913, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 39 is a 1913 NYC hs from a domestic Providence, R.I. to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘UNCLAIMED.’ As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 40. (1916, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 40 is a 1916 NYC hs from a domestic local NYC misdirected letter with return address (no CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ (undeliverable). As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 41. (1915-7, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 41 is a 1915-7 NYC hs from a domestic Mercersburg, Penn. to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY.’ As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 42. (1932, as (Tom Breske Collection))

In Figure 42 is a 1932 NYC hs from a domestic misdirected item. In NYC, item was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY.’ If a letter with a return address, presumably then undeliverable and returned to writer.


Figure 43. (1943, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 43 is a 1943 NYC hs from a domestic Orlando, Fla. to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, addressee was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘NOT AT ADDRESS / GIVEN.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘Do not use this envelope or wrapper again.’


Figure 44. (1945, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 44 is a 1945 NYC hs from a Manila, P.I. to NYC misdirected postal card with return address (CC). In NYC, addressee was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘NOT AT ADDRESS GIVEN.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘INCONNU UNKNOWN,’ returned to sender.


Figure 45. (1945, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 45 is a 1946 NYC hs from a Hungary to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, addressee was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘NOT AT ADDRESS GIVEN.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘RETOUR (RETURN TO WRITER).’


Figure 45a. (1949, (Anthony Wawrukiewicz Collection))

In Figure 45a is a 1949 NYC hs from a France to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, addressee was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘INCONNU Unknown.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘RETURNED TO WRITER.


Figure 46. (1955, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 46 is a 1955 NYC hs from an India to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, addressee was found to be ‘NOT IN DIRECTORY’ and ‘INCONNU UNKNOWN.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘Retour (Return to Writer.’ As post-1954 international letter, directory service correctly given.





The second group of auxiliary markings related to the use of directories that evaluated addresses where the addressee’s name was repeated in the directory. The first example known for NYC is illustrated in Figure 47.

Figure 47. (1906, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 47 is a local 1906 NYC hs from Brooklyn to NYC, a domestic misdirected post card without a return address (no CC). In NYC, item was found to be undeliverable after a directory search as ‘SEVERAL OF SAME / NAME IN DIRECTORY.’ As undeliverable without CC, not returned to writer.


Figure 48. (1910, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 48 is a 1910 NYC hs from Babylon, N.Y, to NYC, a domestic misdirected post card without a return address (no CC). In NYC, item was found to be undeliverable after a directory search as ‘SEVERAL OF SAME / NAME IN DIRECTORY.’ As undeliverable without CC, not returned to writer.


Figure 49. (1912, as (Tom Breske Collection))





In Figure 49 is a local 1912 NYC hs from a domestic Brooklyn, N.Y. to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘SEVERAL OF SAME / NAME IN DIRECTORY.’ As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS / ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 50. (1913, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 50 is a 1913 NYC hs from a domestic Proctorsville, Ver. to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘NAME REPEATED IN DIRECTORY.’ As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS / ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 51. (1916, as (Tom Breske Collection))




In Figure 51 is a 1916 NYC hs from a domestic local NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘Name Repeated in Directory.’ As undeliverable with CC, RETURNED TO SENDER’ ‘DO NOT POST AGAIN IN THIS / ENVELOPE OR WRAPPER.’


Figure 52. (1954, as (Tom Breske Collection))


In Figure 52 is a 1954 NYC hs from a Canada to NYC misdirected letter with return address (CC). In NYC, item was found to be ‘Name Repeated in Directory.’ As undeliverable with CC, ‘INCONNU (UNKNOWN.)’ so returned to sender. As internatioal letter in 1954, directory assistance allowed.